Tag Archives | The Transportation Experience

Urban Endosymbiosis

Endosymbiosis in biology refers to the idea that organelles of eukaryotic cells (like mitochondria and chloroplasts) were originally free-living micro-organisms that combined symbiotically (to mutual benefit). In Chapter 7: Good Roads of The Transportation Experience: Second Edition, we identify an example of what we might call techno-endosymbiosis, when we write: Charles Kettering developed the electric starter, which […]

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