Tag Archives: The Transportation Experience

Urban Endosymbiosis

Endosymbiosis¬†in biology refers to the idea that organelles of eukaryotic cells (like mitochondria and chloroplasts) were originally free-living micro-organisms that combined symbiotically (to mutual benefit). In Chapter 7: Good Roads of¬†The Transportation Experience: Second Edition, we identify an example of what we might call techno-endosymbiosis, when we write: Charles Kettering developed the electric starter, which […]