Pedestrian tunnels

Every Tunnel Tells a Story: the Underground Passageways of Saint Paul and Minneapolis

Here’s a question: Why does Saint Paul have so many more tunnels than Minneapolis? Because we keep Saint Paul boring!

Indeed, Saint Paul’s geography has featured the subterranean since the very beginning when Pierre “Pig’s Eye” Parrant staked his claim at Fountain Cave. And although Saint Paul was well positioned at the northernmost navigable point on the Mississippi, its challenge has always been to connect with the rest of the world atop the bluffs above the river. Minneapolis has tunneled for reasons of its own as well. Let’s take a tour!

This is an exploration of the notable local tunnels past and present that can be visited on foot or by bike. Not included are the many sewer tunnels, submerged streams, the historic Mill District hydropower system, caves, the utility tunnels beneath downtown Saint Paul, or the tunnels connecting buildings at the UofM or state capitol. For a complete guide to many of these features, I highly recommend the book Subterranean Twin Cities by Greg Brick.

Selby Streetcar Tunnel

The Selby Streetcar Tunnel. On the day I visited, city crews were reinforcing the wall blocking the entrance.

Selby Streetcar Tunnel

The most iconic tunnel in Saint Paul is the Selby Streetcar Tunnel, which was built in 1906 to enable electric streetcars to safely climb Cathedral Hill from downtown. The tunnel originally spanned 1,472 feet from just downhill of the Cathedral to the intersection of Nina Street and Selby.

When the Twin Cities abandoned the streetcar system in 1954, the western end of the tunnel was paved over and the eastern end was sealed shut. Of course, it’s virtually impossible to completely seal off something like a tunnel, and for decades the city has fought a losing battle trying to keep out homeless people seeking shelter and urban explorers seeking adventure. In fact, on the day I visited, city crews were hard at work repairing the barrier.

But what if we reopened the tunnel to bicyclists and pedestrians? It’s always been painfully difficult to bike out of downtown to the west. The current choices are steep hills, high car traffic, or a long detour (pick 2). Reopening the tunnel would create an excellent route that isn’t too steep and would turn the city’s ongoing liability into a bona fide attraction. It could be Saint Paul’s answer to the Stone Arch Bridge.

 

Westminster Junction

Westminster Junction tunnel

The longest tunnel at Westminster Junction, built in 1885, runs 1,048 feet.

On the other side of downtown, railroads faced the same vertical challenge. After the Civil War, Saint Paul’s railroads began to eclipse the river in trade volume. Most of the city’s warehouses, however, were concentrated in Lowertown near the docks. The most viable route out of the river valley was up the Trout Brook ravine, which quickly became too crowded for all the traffic. The only solution was to build a series of five tunnels, allowing the tracks to criss-cross in a Y shape (known as a Wye in railroad lingo.)

Westminster Junction

The tunnels can be seen from the Lafayette overpass east of University and from Phalen Boulevard east of Olive Street, where a small interpretive display overlooks the two small tunnels.

Westminster Tunnel

The Westminster tunnel has a skylight at its midpoint

Four of these tunnels remain and are heavily used to this day, the only active train tunnels in the state. In fact, 5% of the country’s daily freight traffic passes through Westminster Junction and the Division Street Wye, which is located just south of Westminster between Union Depot and Dayton’s Bluff.

For the full story of Westminster Junction, read Andrew J. Schmidt’s article in the Spring 1998 issue of Ramsey County History.

 

 

Tunnels of the Milwaukee Road & Midtown Greenway

In the early 1900s, South Minneapolis faced a similar problem–too many trains. The busy Milwaukee Road cut through the width of the city at grade just north of Lake Street. By 1909, the city’s 300,000 residents were forced to wait for two dozen freight trains a day to cross the tracks. The solution was to dig a trench spanned by 28 bridges from Cedar Avenue to Uptown.  After a near century of rail service, the trench became the Midtown Greenway.

Buzza Building Tunnel

The barred entrance to the Buzza Building tunnel near Dupont on the Greenway

The most contentious part of the project was how to accommodate existing businesses along the line whose access to the railroad would be cut by the trench. Many businesses installed conveyor belts or cranes. The Buzza

Brackett Field Tunnel

The Bracket Field tunnel allows access to the park from the neighborhood north of the Greenway

Company, which sold greeting cards and inspirational posters, opted to build a rail spur through a tunnel to their building’s basement.  This tunnel still remains, its spalled and efflorescent entrance blocked by rusted iron bars.

Further east, the Greenway rides high on an embankment as it nears the river, where it sports another tunnel still very much in use. The Brackett Field tunnel cuts under the Greenway at 38th Avenue, one of several charming pedestrian tunnels in the Twin Cities.

 

The East Phalen Tunnel

East Phalen Tunnel

Looking westward toward Lake Phalen through the tunnel.

Similar to the Brackett Field tunnel, the East Phalen tunnel was built to provide access to Phalen Park through the Saint Paul & Duluth railroad embankment, which is now the Bruce Vento trail and is planned to be part of the Rush Line BRT corridor. Unlike Brackett, the East Phalen tunnel has no paved trail or sidewalk and seems to be sparsely used. In winter and spring, it’s often wet and muddy, sometimes impassable. From McAfee street on its east side, it’s very hard to find and has no signage or even a curb cut to mark its presence. A few small improvements would reconnect the East Phalen neighborhood to Phalen Park.

 

Drewry Tunnel in Swede Hollow 

Drewry Tunnel in Swede Hollow

The charming Drewry tunnel

Further south on the Bruce Vento Trail is Swede Hollow, which I consider to be the most Saint Paul place in all of Saint Paul. It combines natural beauty, steep hills, deeply kept secrets, a stark contrast between wealth and poverty, a partially abandoned brewery, an amazing bridge, abandoned railroads, and an excellent tunnel.

For more than a century, Swede Hollow was a slum that the rest of the city chose to ignore. It lacked city water and electricity and was home to waves of poor immigrant families. Throughout that time, Drewry Tunnel was its main access point.

The small tunnel turns in the middle and climbs steeply uphill. It’s size and shape evoke a medieval European city. Descending through it from Payne Avenue feels like a trip back in time as the city is immediately replaced by the quiet of the Hollow.

If you visit the Drewry tunnel, be sure to also see the Seventh Street Improvement Arches just a short distance to the south. Although they feel like a tunnel when you pass under them, they are technically a very rare example of a helicoidal spiral stone-arch viaduct.

 

The Linden Hills Streetcar Tunnel

Linden Hills Streetcar Tunnel

Streetcar tunnel near the Lake Harriet Bandshell

Near the Lake Harriet Bandshell in Minneapolis, there’s a quaint little pedestrian tunnel under the Como-Harriet Streetcar line. Its function seems to be to provide a charming landscape feature more than simply improving access across a low frequency streetcar line.

 

The Ford Plant Sand Tunnels

Ford Plant Tunnel

One of the riverbank exits of the Ford Plant tunnel system. circa 1924 via MNHS.

The most remarkable tunnels in Saint Paul are the four miles of sand tunnels 100 feet beneath the Ford Plant site. The idea of Henry Ford himself, the tunnels were a sand mine for the plant’s glass factory. The tunnels grew from 1926 to 1959, turning sandstone into windshields for thousands of cars.

The tunnels also connected to the riverbank, where finished cars were lowered down an elevator to be loaded onto river barges. Twin entrances were just upstream of the steam plant. Although the steam plant still stands, the tunnel entrances have been completely buried and no evidence of them remains.

Ford Plant Steam Plant

The twin tunnel entrances can be seen just to the left of the steam plant. circa 1936 via MNHS

The redevelopment of the Ford site is progressing, but there’s been little mention of what remains of these tunnels. Presumably they’ve been completely sealed or filled with sand and will never be seen again. For decades, they held legendary status among urban explorers, some of whom went so far as to trespass into the assembly plant to descend a rusty ladder down into the tunnels.

Loading cars unto barges

Loading cars unto barges. circa 1925 via MNHS

There’s also been little mention of what will happen to the riverfront Ford property between the dam and Hidden Falls Park. The area is strikingly beautiful, but contains the abandoned steam plant and a toxic waste dump site of unknown magnitude called Area C. How or when the area will be redeveloped seems to be up in the air.

Ford tunnels today

No evidence remains of the Ford tunnels.

 

The Tunnel of Terror

The Tunnel of Terror

The Tunnel of Terror in Crosby Farm

Ford also dug sand tunnels in Crosby Farm, across from the Watergate Marina. About a mile and a half long, the tunnel cut into the sandstone bluffs in an inverted V shape, wide enough for two trucks to pass and taller than a telephone pole. Mining apparently ended in the 1940s, after which the tunnels were briefly used to store boats, which unfortunately became furry with mold.

Beginning in 1982, the Saint Paul Jaycees used the tunnels every fall for their Tunnel of Terror fundraiser, a truly epic haunted house with real live bats that flew out of the tunnel at dusk. The Tunnel of Terror was a Saint Paul tradition until 2004, when the fire department noted what a terrible idea it was to invite hundreds of people into an enclosed space with only a single exit. Not wanting to completely miss out, I took my 8 year old daughter through during the tunnel’s final season and can affirm that it was indeed a terrifyingly unique event.

The tunnel has since been sealed with concrete but illegal incursions have been an ongoing problem. The fire department recently issued a warning against entering the tunnel after 30 teens had to be rescued from it in March. They correctly note that sealed tunnels can be deadly and that cell phones don’t work underground.

For more information, cast your pale blue eyes on Greg Brick’s chapter titled The Velvet Underground.

 

The Elmer Anderson Library

The Elmer Anderson Library

The University of Minnesota’s Elmer Anderson Library

Tucked beneath the east bank of the the Washington Avenue bridge in Minneapolis is the state’s most unique library, two 600 foot tunnels carved into sandstone that house millions of books. Built in the early 1990s, the tunnel provides ideal storage conditions for the the rarest volumes of the University’s archives.

Like the Ford sand tunnels, the library has taken advantage of the geology of the upper Mississippi river valley, which has soft sandstone layered underneath a roof of hard limestone. In addition to storing books, similar tunnels in Saint Paul’s westside bluffs have been used to grow mushrooms or make blue cheese. Someday perhaps we may choose to use this geology to build a sandstone-level subway system throughout Minneapolis and Saint Paul.

 

Modern Pedestrian Tunnels

Pedestrian tunnels

Top: Lexington Avenue just north of Energy Park Drive and the Bluff Street trail at 35W. Bottom: the Samuel H Morgan Trail crossing at 35E and the Gateway trail at Maryland Avenue

The past decade or so has seen a local renaissance in tunnel building for pedestrian and bicycle trails. Lexington Avenue in Saint Paul now has a tunnel enabling access to Como Park from the Midway, Minneapolis now has a connection under 35W between the Dinkytown Greenway and downtown, and the Samuel H Morgan trail along the east bank of the Mississippi has a bypass under 35E that avoids the freeway interchange. All of these have greatly improved the safety and efficiency of Twin Cities bikeways.

But then there’s the Maryland Avenue tunnel on the Gateway Trail, an otherwise excellent state trail connecting Saint Paul to Stillwater. Built in 2012, the Maryland tunnel was supposed to provide the final Gateway connection between the Eastside and downtown. Instead, because of land acquisition and other complicating issues, the trail through the tunnel has yet to be completed and the tunnel has been languishing for eight years. The Gateway Trail advocacy group reports that these issues may be nearing resolution and trail construction may begin as early as next year. But no one seems to be holding their breath. The whole situation is an example of bad planning and implementation which highlights how bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure often takes a back seat to car-centered projects.

 

The Rabbit Hole

The Rabbit Hole

The bottom of the Rabbit Hole, which ascends up through the middle of Kellogg Boulvard in Saint Paul

It may not look like it from on top, but Kellogg Boulevard from RiverCentre to city hall in downtown Saint Paul is basically one long 80 year old bridge cantilevered over the river bluffs. And, in the middle of it is the Rabbit Hole, a tunnel extension of Exchange Street that pops up into the middle of Kellogg right outside the Science Museum.

Like all good things in Saint Paul, the Rabbit Hole was designed as a shortcut, in this case to relieve traffic at Seven Corners. Now, it’s a shortcut to Shepard Road and 35E.

Pedestrians aren’t allowed, but if you bike down the Rabbit Hole, you’ll see just how decrepit the structure under Kellogg has become since it was built in the 1930s.

 

Battle Creek & Fish Hatchery Trail Tunnel

Battle Creek tunnel to Fish Hatchery Trail

The Battle Creek tunnel to Fish Hatchery Trail under Highway 61.

One of the finest bicycle rides in the Twin Cities is to descend through Battle Creek Park from Upper Afton Road, crossing the creek repeatedly, then going through the unremarkable and somewhat decrepit tunnel under Highway 61 and continuing on Fish Hatchery Trail. The Battle Creek ride is exhilarating, but what makes the 1.4 mile long Fish Hatchery trail so great is its surreal remoteness and the roller coaster feel of its heaved and buckled pavement (plus a brief stretch of gravel!). Taking it at speed feels bracingly out of control on a road bike. Taking it slow offers a chance to explore an urban woods that few residents of Saint Paul have ever seen.

Some of the best biking trails in the Twin Cities, at least in my opinion, are in wooded ares, near lakes or rivers, are quiet and peaceful, and allow you to observe wildlife.  And to have such bike trails within a couple of miles from downtown St Paul is something quite special. —Melissa Wenzel

We have Eastside bicycle advocate Melissa Wenzel to thank for urging the city and state to reopen the trail, which was closed for three years due to erosion. Even now, when so many people are rediscovering hiking and bicycling as ideal social distancing activities, Fish Hatchery remains quiet and uncrowded.

 

The Northeast Yacht Club

The NE Yacht Club

The NE Yacht Club on Marshall Avenue in Minneapolis

Finally, I would be remiss if I didn’t mention the NE Yacht club, which does not in fact involve yachts but has a bona fide prohibition era smuggling tunnel, as the intrepid Bill Lindeke deftly reports. Certainly worth a visit!

Except as noted, all photos were taken by the author, mostly for Bike Tag.

 

 

Dan Marshall

About Dan Marshall

Dan Marshall lives in Hamline-Midway, is the father of four kids, owns a retail shop in Saint Paul with his wife Millie, bikes all around town, and holds a history degree from the U of M.

19 thoughts on “Every Tunnel Tells a Story: the Underground Passageways of Saint Paul and Minneapolis

  1. Elizabeth Larey

    This is a keeper!!! I love streets.mn because I learn something almost every week. Looking forward to investigating these!

  2. Jenny WernessJenny WernessModerator  

    I’ve been enjoying seeing your Twitter posts about these tunnels, and so thankful you put them all together for thus article! Learning about the deep history of our tunnels is fascinating.

    I rode through the Swede Valley tunnel for the first time back in February, after years of passing it by.

  3. Gordy Moore

    I’m a volunteer for the Minnesota Streetcar Museum (since 2018, so not an expert), but if my memory serves, the pedestrian underpass near the 42nd St./Lake Harriet station is original to the Twin City Lines system. Aaron Isaacs and others would be able to correct me.

    1. Aaron IsaacsAaron Isaacs

      The Lake Harriet streetcar pedestrian underpass dates from about 1900. Its purpose was to grade separate the tracks from the considerable crowds traveling to Lake Harriet. The Minnesota Streetcar Museum restored it in 2005.

  4. Fred Kreider

    Love the history, love the familiar places!
    I was exploring Swede Hollow last summer, and stumbled upon the Drewry Tunnel, and hot hockey, I was shocked and almost lost my chain downshifting for that steep climb.

    7th St is my favorite t̶u̶n̶n̶e̶l̶ I mean archway in the cities.
    Truly fascinating. Posts like this are why I started following Streets.MN so many years ago.

    I look forward to more like this!

  5. Russ Booth

    Taking Glenwood Ave into downtown Minneapolis, it seems like you go through a tunnel. Maybe two. (Maybe none.)

    There is definitely a tunnel under Shepard Road. Take the dirt path from Summit Brewing’s parking lot – actually closer to their neighbor, Harris – down the bluff. At the bottom is a half-cylinder shaped corrugated metal tunnel that goes under Shepard Road to a wooded area that is so full of ticks I may never go there again.

    1. Dan MarshallDan Marshall Post author

      Glenwood goes under I94, which is a long and wide elevated freeway. But then it goes through the Target Center parking ramps which is very much a tunnel sort of thing.

      I considered the Shepard Road one but I thought it seems more of a culvert. Also I didn’t want to get all muddy to take a pic. It is an impressively large hole under Shep tho.

  6. Jon

    The Elmer Anderson Library was built in the late 90s, not the early 90s. I worked in Blegen Hall the summer of 1997, and would would hear and feel every blast.

    1. Dan MarshallDan Marshall Post author

      My memory may be off but I remember watching construction before I graduated in ’93. I couldn’t find an exact date when researching online tho.

  7. Steve Gjerdingen

    Love the idea of creating a bike tunnel from i35e up past the Cathedral through the old Selby tunnel! I have no idea what that would cost but that would be a fantastic bike route to get out of downtown St. Paul. I wonder how difficult it would be to do an “open roof” concept with that as well? Not sure how far below the street/parking-lots that tunnel is…

    There was talk about using the Ford tunnels to lay some of the new utilities for the Ford site redevelopment, but haven’t heard much about that since, so I’m guessing that idea has been forgotten. It is a shame to see something go to waste!

  8. Tpeg.jpeg

    Tunnel of Terror and the other caves/cellars/mines in the area are not inherently dangerous. You are safer in them than you are walking across the street. They are only unsafe if you don’t bring a flashlight or are intending on lighting a fire (which is really dumb).

    The city makes these areas unsafe when they attempt to seal them, which constricts the airflow and makes the exit more difficult to discern once inside.

  9. Melissa Anne Wenzel

    Thanks for the Fish Hatchery Trail shoutout!! It took a village to get that trail open and I’m impatient and excited for future developments. Thank you, village!!

  10. Ian R Buck

    You know, now that you mention it, I think I have noticed the East Phalen tunnel. I’ve never taken it, I think I always assumed that it was closed because (as you note) there’s nothing leading to the tunnel.

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