When You Plan, You Begin With A B C

I was driving through Uptown with a friend in 2004 when it hit me: these streets are in alphabetical order! As a visitor I was impressed by such orderliness; a month later I moved to Minneapolis (not because of the street names—or at least, not entirely because of them). I learned about the second alphabet while visiting friends in Linden Hills, but it wasn’t until several years later that some random Google Maps browsing revealed not two but eight (okay, maybe just 7 and 1/13th) sequences of alphabetically-ordered street names extending west from Aldrich. By this time I also knew of the presidential sequence in northeast Minneapolis, and more map browsing revealed some others.

Of course, there are many instances of themed clusters of street names in the region. The map includes some of these, such as the great lakes names southeast of the University and the several names in southeast Minneapolis associated with Longfellow’s Song of Hiawatha (including, unexpectedly, Standish). In this post I focus on sequences—sets of street names that include some sort of ordering. I also focus on named rather than numbered sequences. (The region’s various street numbering systems have some interesting features as well; I hope to explore them in a future article.)

It is often difficult to perceive the extent of these sequences. The hierarchical nature of our modern road system makes it unlikely that a single trip will encounter more than a small portion of a single sequence. Also, daily travel can not provide an experience of both their length and breadth. One might encounter Aldrich, Bryant, and Colfax in Uptown without knowing that the same streets could be found several miles to the south, in Burnsville. Similarly, a traveler heading north on Washington Street might be unaware that Adams, Jefferson, and Madison are marching along beside. To provide a better understanding of how these name sequences fit into the larger regional context, I mapped them.

Making the Map

To visually identify the named sequences on the map, I started with the U.S. Census Bureau’s TIGER road shapefiles and a manually-populated table of street and sequence names, then joined the two to assign each road feature a sequence identifier. This simple process resulted in a lot of “false positives” which you can see on the map—the various scattered dots and short lines indicate that some names (especially the presidents and trees) are used in many places, not necessarily as part of a sequence.

The Alphabets

The alphabetical street name sequences are the most prominent in the metro area. The first begins with Aldrich, just west of Lyndale in Minneapolis.

First Alphabet and The Hennepin Hiccup

The first alphabet doesn’t make it very far before running into trouble—with a capital “H.” After stumbling through the various misaligned grids of downtown Minneapolis, the warehouse district, and Loring Park, Hennepin Avenue is at first largely ignored by the strict north-south grid of south Minneapolis below Franklin Avenue. Aldrich through Girard sigh and roll their eyes a bit, but they continue past Hennepin unimpeded. But Humboldt, perhaps feeling threatened by the appearance of another “H” street, dodges perfectly away from Hennepin as if repeled by magnetism. This westward jog squeezes the following streets against Lake of the Isles. On reaching 28th Street, Humboldt takes a further westward dodge around the former site of West High School before resuming its southerly course.

The result of this maneuvering is that south of 28th Street, Humboldt, Irving, James, and Knox are all two blocks west of where they “should” be, and Hennepin has assumed Humboldt’s geographic place in the lineup. The rivalry between Hennepin and Humboldt left a one-block gap between them, so… what comes between “H” and “H?” “H,” of course, and so Holmes shows up to fill in the gap. Hennepin, Holmes, Humboldt: the hiccup.

To the west, Lake of the Isles and Lake Calhoun swallow the hiccup, and beyond them the alphabet continues with its regular rhythm. To the south, the hiccup-ed streets are all interrupted by Lakewood Cemetery and then by Lake Harriet. When they emerge on the other side, Hennepin is gone, and the other streets have resumed their appointed positions as though nothing happened. The hiccup, then, exists only for one mile between 26th and 36th Streets.

But we are left to wonder: where is Hennepin, and what happened in that cemetery?

  • Aldrich
  • Bryant
  • Colfax
  • Dupont
  • Emerson
  • Fremont
  • Girard
  • Hennepin
  • Holmes
  • Humboldt
  • Irving
  • James
  • Knox
  • Logan
  • Morgan
  • Newton
  • Oliver
  • Penn
  • Queen
  • Russell
  • Sheridan
  • Thomas
  • Upton
  • Vincent
  • Washburn
  • Xerxes
  • York
  • Zenith

Second Alphabet

The second alphabet isn’t particularly notable. Can you see any theme I might be missing?

  • Abbott
  • Beard
  • Chowen
  • Drew
  • Ewing
  • France
  • Glenhurst
  • Huntington
  • Inglewood
  • Joppa
  • Kipling
  • Lynn
  • Monterey
  • Natchez
  • Ottawa
  • Princeton
  • Quentin
  • Raleigh
  • Salem
  • Toledo
  • Utica
  • Vernon
  • Webster
  • Xenwood
  • Yosemite
  • Zarthan

Third Alphabet

(Update 12/3/12 6:27 PM: thanks Bill C and David Greene for identifying the B street as Brunswick!)

The third alphabet has a distinct “U.S. states” theme: Alabama, Colorado, Dakota. The namers did the best they could within their alphabetic constraints. Some interesting compromises include Dakota, Jersey, and Hampshire, which are made geographically ambiguous, and the inclusion of our northern neighbors Brunswick, Quebec, and Yukon. A few are respectable punts, like Edgewood and Sumter, but what did they really expect to get done with X and Z?

  • Alabama
  • Brunswick
  • Colorado
  • Dakota
  • Edgewood
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Hampshire
  • Idaho
  • Jersey
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Nevada
  • Oregon
  • Pennsylvania
  • Quebec
  • Rhode Island
  • Sumter
  • Texas
  • Utah
  • Virginia
  • Wyoming
  • Xylon
  • Yukon
  • Zinran

Fourth Alphabet

Settlement, revolution, independence, and civil war: the fourth alphabet is largely a (non-chronological) romp through early American history.

  • Aquila
  • Boone
  • Cavell
  • Decatur
  • Ensign
  • Flag
  • Gettysburg
  • Hillsboro
  • Independence
  • Jordan
  • Kilmer
  • Lancaster
  • Melrose
  • Nathan
  • Orleans
  • Pilgrim
  • Quaker
  • Revere
  • Saratoga
  • Trenton
  • Union Terrace
  • Valley Forge
  • Wellington
  • Ximines
  • Yorktown
  • Zachary

Fifth Alphabet

Trees. Or, words that sound like names of trees just because we added “wood” to the end. I do not think that anyone has ever sat in the shade of a majestic Quinwood. Zinnia is a plant but not a tree, and the genus Yucca includes brevifolia, also known as the Joshua tree.

I am most puzzled by Ives. Ironwood is a common name for many types of trees; perhaps it was already used somewhere? But in any case “Iveswood” would have fit the pattern better.

  • Arrowood
  • Balsam
  • Cottonwood
  • Deerwood
  • Evergreen
  • Forestview
  • Goldenrod
  • Hemlock
  • Ives
  • Jonquil
  • Kirkwood
  • Larch
  • Magnolia
  • Norwood
  • Oakview
  • Pinewood
  • Quinwood
  • Rosewood
  • Sycamore
  • Teakwood
  • Underwood
  • Vinewood
  • Wedgewood
  • Xenium
  • Yucca
  • Zinnia

Sixth Alphabet

The basic theme seems to be city names, but the choices are often strange and there are many exceptions where they don’t appear to be needed. There are many Kingswoods in the UK and the Commonwealth countries, including this tiny one in Gloucestershire, just down the road from Wotton-under-Edge. There are two places named Polaris in the United States; both are unincorporated. It seems impossible to me that someone naming streets in Minnesota would fail to come up with a town name starting with M—is this really the best place to use up the name “Minnesota?” Zanzibar is a wonderful way to close out this set.

  • Annapolis
  • Berkshire
  • Cheshire
  • Dallas
  • Empire
  • Fernbrook
  • Glacier
  • Harbor
  • Ithaca
  • Juneau
  • Kingswood
  • Lanewood
  • Minnesota
  • Niagara
  • Orchid
  • Polaris
  • Quantico
  • Ranchwood
  • Shenandoah
  • Terraceview
  • Upland
  • Vicksburg
  • Weston
  • Xene
  • Yuma
  • Zanzibar

Seventh Alphabet

This one seems to be a bit of a grab bag. Can anyone pick out a theme here?

  • Archer
  • Black Oaks
  • Comstock
  • Dunkirk
  • Everest
  • Fountain
  • Garland
  • Holly
  • Inland
  • Jewel
  • Kimberly
  • Lawndale
  • Merrimack
  • Narcissus
  • Olive
  • Peony
  • Queensland
  • Ranier
  • Shadyview
  • Troy
  • Urbandale
  • Vagabond
  • Walnut Grove
  • Xanthus
  • Yellowstone
  • Zircon

Eighth Alphabet

It appears that at the western edge of Plymouth lies the very beginnings of an eighth alphabet, cut short by the township border. It appears that the alphabetical sequences end at this point.

  • Alvarado
  • Brockton

Other Sequences


The presidents are probably my favorite of these street name sequences, for two reasons. First, since they are ordered by inauguration date, an eastward trip along Broadway Street provides an incidental lesson in American history. Second, this sequence is full of interesting exceptions.

For example, it turns out that we have had a few name conflicts among our presidents. Quincy is distinguished from his father by his middle name, Benjamin’s last name is preempted by his predecesor William Henry, and Delano’s first and last names are shared by earlier American notables. Ulysses’ last name was already used for a brief stretch in downtown Minneapolis. But our foremost founding father’s name is apparently unimpeachable: despite the existence of Washington Avenue in downtown Minneapolis, we also have Washington Street (perhaps “George Street” sounded too Loyalist?).

Few would likely complain about being immortalized in a local street name, but John Adams might be annoyed at least by his treatment relative to his peers. Adams St. is squeezed out by an awkward street grid shift between 17th Ave NE and 22nd Ave NE, and it appears that it never occurs again. Residents of Anoka County could be forgiven for thinking Jefferson to be our second president.

The presidents are notable for their geographic longevity. They begin just north of historic St. Anthony in Hennepin County, continue into and across Anoka County, and make appearances far into Isanti County (and perhaps beyond).

  • Washington
  • Adams
  • Jefferson
  • Madison
  • Monroe
  • Quincy
  • Jackson
  • Van Buren
  • Harrison
  • Tyler
  • Polk
  • Taylor
  • Fillmore
  • Pierce
  • Buchanan
  • Lincoln
  • Johnson
  • Ulysses
  • Hayes
  • Garfield
  • Arthur
  • Cleveland
  • Benjamin
  • McKinley
  • Roosevelt
  • Taft
  • Wilson
  • Harding
  • Coolidge
  • Hoover
  • Delano


The seasons are easy to overlook. They are few in number; they are interrupted by freeways, rail yards, and industrial campuses; and they are often overridden by other street names. Spring and Summer make a good start at the root of Washington St., but are soon disrupted by I-35W, after which Spring is briefly replaced by Kennedy St. (a president running perpendicular to the others) and Summer becomes sporadic. Winter is, ironically, thoroughly unreliable and appears to exist only between Fillmore St. and Industrial Blvd. Autumn is almost entirely absent. Through all of northeast Minneapolis, Lauderdale and Falcon Heights it is replaced by Broadway St. and then by Roselawn Ave. before finally make a single one-block appearance just west of Lexington.

Despite these geographic inconsistencies, the seasons are distinctive for a few reasons. First, the are the only major named sequence of east-west streets; east-west streets in the area are, as a general rule, numbered rather than named. Also, they are the only sequence of named streets that exists continuously across Hennepin and Ramsey Counties. Despite disappearing entirely in Lauderdale and Falcon Heights, they are resurrected by Roseville, and Summer makes its final appearance just east of Lake Phalen.

  • Winter
  • Spring
  • Summer
  • Autumn
Andrew Owen

About Andrew Owen

Andrew Owen is the director of the Accessibility Observatory (http://access.umn.edu) and a research fellow in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Minnesota.

27 thoughts on “When You Plan, You Begin With A B C

  1. Matt SteeleMatt

    How about the section roads in Dakota County? It looks like they spread east and west from a line matching the tip of Dakota County into the west side of St. Paul, just like the Hennepin County et al series originate at Nicollet. Many of the roads, both in townships and in some cities such as Lakeville, are named starting with the same letter as the nearest section road.


    -Annette Ave

    -Blaine Ave

    -Clayton Ave

    -Donnelly Ave

    -Emery Ave

    -Fischer Ave

    -Goodwin Ave

    -Hogan Ave

    -Inga Ave

    -Joan Ave

    -Kirby Ave

    -Lillehei Ave

    -Michael Ave

    -Nicolai Ave

    -Orlando Ave

    -Polk Ave

    -Quentin Ave? Yes, another


    -Alverno Ave

    -Biscayne Ave

    -Chippendale Ave

    -Denmark Ave (Diamond Path)

    -Essex Ave (Pilot Knob Road)

    Now it seems to be every half mile:

    -Flagstaff Ave

    -Galaxie Ave

    -Cedar Ave (Minneapolis naming)

    -Highview Ave

    -Ipava Ave

    -Jaguar Ave

    -Kenrick Ave

    (these are a little bit of a stretch at the end as the section grid wasn't always spaced at a mile)

    1. David Greene

      Yes, section roads would make good sequences, especially out in the exurbs which used to be farmland. Good find!

  2. David Greene

    Most names of the second alphabet differ north/south of I-394 or Mn-55, it is hard to make out the border. For example:
















    Vera Cruz





    There are similar differences in the third alphabet and probably the others as well.

    The "B" name in the third alphabet is not Blackstone, but Brunswick. Blackstone appears to be a second hiccup.

    1. Andrew OwenAndrew Owen Post author

      You're right, I haven't captured that strangeness with the second alphabet. To me it looks like 55 is the dividing line.

  3. David Greene

    You forgot the colleges of St. Paul, which are E-W streets. They aren't in sequence until Berkeley, however.

    Ann Arbor





  4. Paul Anderson

    Interesting post! I've come across many of these sets before and it's interesting to see how far they go. I know of one more alphabet that I don't see on your map: the one in Washington County. Just west of Stillwater you have:




    Lake Elmo


    1. Andrew OwenAndrew Owen Post author

      Thanks for pointing that out! I've also found what looks like at least two alphabets in Anoka County… looks like I will need to do an update to the map 🙂

  5. Jonathan

    Inver Grove Heights has alphabet "sections," where all streets in a square mile begin with the same letter.

  6. Amy

    I've always wondered whether the Douglas-Summit-Lincoln sequence in Kenwood was a hat tip to the great debates.

  7. David LevinsonDavid Levinson

    Some other really cool names

    Transit Avenue (Roseville), on which little Transit runs … named for the surveyors tool, since it is near Sextant Avenue.

    Traffic Street (NE Minneapolis), which carries very little traffic.

    1. Andrew OwenAndrew Owen Post author

      I'm similarly curious about Transfer Road in Saint Paul, which seems to be associated with the nearby rail yards and many shipping warehouses.

      1. David Greene

        That's for the Minnesota Transfer Railway, the original developer of the line that caused University Ave. to move from Minnehaha Ave. to Melrose Ave. where it is today. That's why the Amtrak station is off of Transfer Road.

        1. David Greene

          As an additional note, because of its previous alignment, University Ave. was not named solely for the U of M. It was named as the connecting road between two universities: U of M and Hamline.

  8. David Greene

    There are also presidents in a sequence of Hopkins streets:

    Washington Ave.

    Adams Ave.

    Jefferson Ave.

    Madison Ave.

    Monroe Ave.

    Jackson Ave.

    Van Buren Ave.

    Harrison Ave.

    Tyler Ave.

    I guess the planners were disgusted by presidents after Tippecanoe and Tyler too.

  9. Fred Carpenter

    What about the alphabetic sequences using university names? Berkeley, Harvard, Delaware, Yale, and so on? Were they sequential at some point or just a subject cluster?

  10. Tim Santiago

    Given that my home of St Paul is 95% random in how they name their streets, any relationships that do exist are difficult to recognize. Good work!

    On a related note, I was absolutely amazed on my first trip to DC last year on the absolute ease of navigating their city streets. From 'downtown' the east west roads go from A to Z headed north, two-syllable names A-Z, three-syllable names A-Z, then trees A-Z. Numbered Streets N-S, and diagonal routes are named after States.

  11. Matt Brillhart

    There's also Washington County's bizarre west-to-east alphabetical arrangement, which begins with Geneva (aka Century Avenue aka MN-120 aka Division Street) all the way out to Riviera Avenue in Lake St. Croix Beach. This results in a bunch of goofy Qu- streets in the St. Croix River towns.

    To me, this is the least useful system of the ones mentioned. Even though it is alphabetical, you have to suffer through at least a dozen streets with the same first letter. When you're driving (and you must drive…it's the suburbs) who can tell if that street sign said Ingersoll, Ingelside or Innsdale (Cottage Grove). Not to mention the windy road systems often result in the names getting out of alphabetical order, defeating the purpose of having one in the first place.

    Apparently Woodbury was too good for the alphabet system and opted out, although just about every other Washington County city participates, save for the tiny old towns with numbering systems.

    1. Andrew OwenAndrew Owen Post author

      Matt, thanks for pointing that out, especially the quagmire of Q streets. I can't read "Quamwell" (Lakeland) without laughing.

  12. Matt Brillhart

    Thanks for doing this. The map looks great BTW; excellent choice of colors.

    I always knew that Minneapolis street names crossed the river into Burnsville (Nicollet Ave being a prominent street) but finding Xerxes and France all the way down in Elko New Market was a real trip!

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